It was observed that zinc oxide nanoparticles induced significantly greater cytotoxicity than that induced by carbon and SiO2 nanoparticles. It has been nicely demonstrated by Nair et al. Nano Res Lett 11:400, Siddiqi KS, Husen A (2016) Green synthesis, characterization and uses of palladium/platinum nanoparticles. [77] have concluded from their studies on rats that zinc oxide nanoparticles remain intact at around neutral or biological pH but rapidly dissolve under acidic conditions (pH 4.5) in the lysosome of the microbes leading to their death. [79] have reported that dissociation of zinc oxide nanoparticles results in destruction of cellular Zn homeostasis. Premanathan et al. Mater Tod 7:26–33, Wang ZL (2004) Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications. Xie et al. Application of zinc oxide nanoparticles in different areas of science, medicine, and technology suggests that it is an indispensable substance which is equally important to man and animals. Zinc nanoparticles or zinc oxide nanoparticles of extremely low concentration cannot cause toxicity in human system. The SEM and TEM images have shown that zinc oxide nanoparticles damage the bacterial cell wall [55, 62] and increase permeability followed by their accumulation in E. coli preventing their multiplication [63]. Part Fibre Toxicol 8:27, Tuomela S, Autio R, Buerki-Thurnherr T, Arslan O, Kunzmann A, Andersson-Willman B, Wick P, Mathur S, Scheynius A, Krug HF, Fadeel B, Lahesmaa R (2013) Gene expression profiling of immune-competent human cells exposed to engineered zinc oxide or titanium dioxide nanoparticles. 1). It has been suggested that growth inhibition of bacterial cells occurs mainly by Zn2+ ions which are produced by extracellular dissolution of zinc oxide nanoparticles [76]. Their physical, chemical and biological behaviour may differ in some respects, mainly because of their small size and the large surface area this yields for the same amount of material. The outer cell membrane was ruptured leading to cell lysis. Antibacterial activity may be catalyzed by sunlight, but hopefully, it can prevent the formation of ROS. [114] have examined the influence of zinc oxide nanoparticles on Campylobacter jejuni cell morphology using SEM images (Fig. It may happen only if they are coated with a biocompatible hydrophilic polymer of low cost. Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, 202002, India, Department of Saidla (Unani Pharmacy), Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, 202002, India, Department of Biology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O. Biochemistry 36:173–180, Adams LK, Lyon DY, Alvarez PJJ (2006) Comparative eco-toxicity of nanoscale TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO water suspensions. All the authors read and approved the final manuscript. Ghorbanpourn M, Manika K, Varma A) Springer International Publishing AG, Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland, pp.455–479, Chaudhry Q, Scotter M, Blackburn J, Ross B, Boxall A, Castle L, Aitken R, Watkins R (2008) Applications and implications of nanotechnologies for the food sector. The free radicals are so reactive that they cannot stay in free and, therefore, they can either form a molecule or react with a counter ion to give another molecule. What are the properties of ZnO nanoparticles? It was found that 90% bacterial colonies perished after exposing them to a dose of 500–1000 μg/ml of zinc oxide nanoparticles only for 6 h. Even the drug-resistant S. aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Mycobacterium bovis when treated with zinc oxide nanoparticles in combination with a low dose of anti-tuberculosis drug, rifampicin (0.7 μg/ml), a significant reduction in their growth was observed. Zinc oxide absorbs UV-Vis light from the sun and splits the elements of water. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) that have diameters less than 100 nanometers. FEMS Microbiol Lett 279:71–76, Wahab R, Mishra A, Yun SI, Kim YS, Shin HS (2010) Antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles prepared via non-hydrolytic solution route. It has been shown that it produces ROS (hydroxyl radicals, superoxides, and hydrogen peroxide) in the presence of moisture which ostensibly react with bacterial cell material such as protein, lipids, and DNA, eventually causing apoptosis. Nanoscale Res Lett 13, 141 (2018). Nanoparticles may be toxic to some microorganisms, but they may be essential nutrients to some of them [55, 105]. Mechanism of action has been ascribed to the activation of zinc oxide nanoparticles by light, which penetrate the bacterial cell wall via diffusion. Gen J Virol 75:37–42, Lee SP, Xiao J, Knutson JR, Lewis MS, Han MK (1997) Zn2+ promotes the self-association of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 integrase in vitro. In the recent past, antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticle has been investigated against four known gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. However, minimal effect of metal ions was detected which suggests that the bacterial growth inhibition is mainly due to interaction of zinc oxide nanoparticles with microorganisms. Dissolved oxygen molecules are transformed into superoxide, O2−, which in turn reacts with H+ to generate HO2 radical and after collision with electrons produces hydrogen peroxide anion, HO2−. Sci Total Environ 409:1603–1608, Karlsson HL, Toprak MS, Fadeel B (2014) Toxicity of metal and metal oxide nanoparticle. Animal studies have indicated an increase in pulmonary inflammation, oxidative stress, etc. The polymer-coated spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles showed maximum bacterial cell destruction compared to bulk zinc oxide powder [99]. Mechanism of oxygen production in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles still needs experimental evidence. a TEM images of untreated normal Salmonella typhimurium cells. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:2325–2331, Akbar A, Anal AK (2014) Zinc oxide nanoparticles loaded active packaging, a challenge study against Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus in ready-to-eat poultry meat. TEM images of Escherichia coli (a), zinc oxide nanoparticles with E. coli at different stages (b and inset), Klebsiella pneumoniae (c), and zinc oxide nanoparticles with K. pneumoniae (d and inset) [120]. [91] examined the concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in human lung MRC5 cells. J Appl Phys 98:041301, Klingshirn C ZnO: from basics towards applications. The properties of Cobalt doped zinc oxide nanoparticles prepared through simple cost effective, Sol-gel method can be used in optoelectronics and thermally stable devices. Coll Surf A 230:23–35, Auer G, Griebler WD, Jahn B (2005) Industrial inorganic pigments, 3rd edn. Nanomedicine 10:1195–1208, Siddiqi KS, Husen A (2017) Plant response to engineered metal oxide nanoparticles. Nano Res Lett 11:482, Siddiqi KS, Rahman A, Tajuddin, Husen A (2016) Biogenic fabrication of iron/iron oxide nanoparticles and their application. After a 12-h treatment (0.5 mg/ml), C. jejuni was found to be extremely sensitive and cells transformed from spiral shape to coccoid forms. Cellular uptake of nanoparticles is not mandatory for cytotoxicity to occur. For instance, Au55 nanoparticles of 1.4-nm size have been demonstrated to interact with the major grooves of DNA which accounts for its toxicity [84]. Chem Biol 12:1227–1234, Xia T, Kovochich M, Brant J, Hotze M, Sempf J, Oberley T, Sioutas C, Yeh JI, Wiesner MR, Nel AE (2006) Comparison of the abilities of ambient and manufactured nanoparticles to induce cellular toxicity according to an oxidative stress paradigm. Cho et al. J Ceram Soc Jpn 106:1007–1011, Kumar PTS, Lakshmanan VK, Anilkumar TV, Ramya C, Reshmi P, Unnikrishnan AG, Nair SV, Jayakumar R (2012) Flexible and microporous chitosan hydrogel/nano ZnO composite bandages for wound dressing: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. 4) which was further confirmed by FTIR, XRD, and SEM. The basic mechanism of bactericidal nature of ZnO nanoparticles includes physical contact between ZnO nanoparticles and the bacterial cell wall, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as free radicals and release of … [96] have reported the preparation of a novel antimicrobial composite material hydrogel by mixing a biocompatible poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) with zinc oxide nanoparticles. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) that have diameters less than 100 nanometers. [100] are highly effective in treating burns, wounds, and diabetic foot ulcers. Academic Press pp, London, pp 75–112, Cho WS, Duffin R, Howie SE, Scotton CJ, Wallace WA, Macnee W, Bradley M, Megson IL, Donaldson K (2011) Progressive severe lung injury by zinc oxide nanoparticles; the role of Zn2+ dissolution inside lysosomes. the solubility of the nano-sized formulation in water is about 10× that of the pigmentary grade, in tissue culture medium the solubility of nano-sized and pigmentary grade is similar. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using a simple precipitation method with zinc … Zinc oxide nanoparticles can therefore be used in preventing the biological system from infections. If it is correct, then large amounts of metal nanoparticles are required so that the bacterial cells are completely enveloped and shielded from its environment leaving no chance for nutrition to be absorbed to continue life process. The structural properties of the ZnO NPs were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques. Of all natural and synthetic wound dressing materials, the chitosan hydrogel microporous bandages laced with zinc oxide nanoparticles developed by Kumar et al. However, it could not be ascertained if the absorbed zinc was Zn2+ or zinc oxide or both, although smaller sized zinc oxide nanoparticles have greater concentration in the blood than larger ones (19 and > 100 nm). The MIC of zinc oxide nanoparticles against E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and S. aureus were found to be 500 and 125 μg/ml, respectively. Because they are very tiny, nanoparticles generally can travel throughout the body, and have been shown in animal studies to penetrate the placenta, blood–brain barrier, individual cells, and their nuclei. Exploiting these properties enables different applications. Nano and microparticles of zinc oxide are obtained by different production methods and acquire different properties. It has also been proposed that the release of H2O2 may be an alternative to anti-bacterial activity [65]. J Appl Toxicol 29:69–78, Schwartz VB, Thétiot F, Ritz S, Pütz S, Choritz L, Lappas A, Förch R, Landfester K, Jonas U (2012) Antibacterial surface coatings from zinc oxide nanoparticles embedded in poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel surface layers. Tissues can absorb them easily due to their size which makes it difficult to detect them. It exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli at a very low zinc oxide concentration (1.33 mM). The bulk zinc oxide also did not affect the growth rate and viable counts, although they showed substantial decrease in these parameters. The inadvertent use of zinc oxide nanoparticles may sometime adversely affect the living system. The PEG starch-coated nanorods/nanoparticles do not damage the healthy cells. AH, KSS, AR, and T gathered the research data. Zinc is a Block D, Period 4 element while Oxygen is a Block P, Period 2 element. Bioresour Technol 102:1516–1520, Jones N, Ray B, Ranjit KT, Manna AC (2008) Antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticle suspensions on a broad spectrum of microorganisms. J Colloid Interf Sci 275:177–182, Elechiguerra J, Burt J, Morones J, Camacho-Bragado A, Gao X, Lara HH, Yacaman MJ (2005) Interaction of silver nanoparticles with HIV-1. [66] have reported the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Many bacterial infections are transmitted by contact with door knobs, key boards, water taps, bath tubs, and telephones; therefore, it is essential to develop and coat such surfaces with inexpensive advanced antibacterial substances so that their growth is inhibited. In another recent study, Ng et al. These pathogens were completely destroyed when incubated for 24 h with 1000 μg/ml of zinc oxide nanoparticles. [92] have synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticle tetrapods by entirely a novel route known as “Flame transport synthesis approach”. It has also been supported by an increase in the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus by 69.6% when treated with 10 mg/L of Zn [46]. J Mater Sci. It has also been indicated from the viable cell determination during the exposure of bacterial cells to zinc oxide nanoparticles that the number of cells recovered decreased significantly with decrease in size of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are generally less toxic than silver nanoparticles in a broad range of concentrations (20 to 100 mg/l) with average particle size of 480 nm [55, 62, 63]. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are the semiconductor materials having band gap energy 3.37 eV and very large excitation binding energy (60meV) at room temperature. Eur J Pharmacol 738:31–39, Frederickson CJ, Koh JY, Bush AI (2005) The neurobiology of zinc in health and disease. Correspondence to Methods. 4). As of 2011 there were no known human illnesses resulting from any engineered nanoparticles. This study focuses on the reinforcement of an epoxy resin system (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in their pristine form and a further modified form. They can help in activating the enzyme carboxy peptidase, carbonic anhydrase, and alcohol dehydrogenase which help in the digestion of carbohydrate and alcohol. Zinc metal is an essential trace element for man, animal, plant, and bacterial growth while zinc oxide nanoparticles are toxic to many fungi, viruses, and bacteria. Food Add Cont: Part A 25:241–258, Jansen J, Karges W, Rink L (2009) Zinc and diabetes—clinical links and molecular mechanisms. Chem Rev 108:2064–2110, Yamamoto O, Hotta M, Sawai J, Sawai J, Sasamoto T, Kojima H (1998) Influence of powder characteristic of ZnO on antibacterial activity: effect of specific surface area. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 87:1917–1925. PLoS One 9:e84983, Taccola L, Raffa V, Riggio C, Vittorio O, Iorio MC, Vanacore R, Pietrabissa A, Cuschieri A (2011) Zinc oxide nanoparticles as selective killers of proliferating cells. also showed excellent UV shielding ability and visible light transparency. California Privacy Statement, The powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, UV-vis optical absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy analyses. Environ Health Perspect 106:375–384, Rikans LE, Hornbrook KR (1997) Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant protection and aging. The aim of this study is evaluating the antibacterial activity of resin composites containing ZnO nanoparticles against Streptococcus mutans and examining their physical and mechanical properties. Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles is concentration and solubility dependent. b Effects of nanoparticles on the cells (marked with arrows). FEMS Microbiol Lett 279:71–76, Sahu D, Kannan GM, Tailang M, Vijayaraghavan R (2016) In vitro cytotoxicity of nanoparticles: a comparison between particle size and cell type. Thus, it is the unique property of zinc oxide tetrapods that can be changed at will which consequently alter their antimicrobial efficiency. Some possible ways to produce ZnO nano-particles are laser ablation, hydrothermal methods, electrochemical depositions, sol–gel method, chemical vapor deposition, thermal decomposition, combustion methods, ultrasound, microwave-assisted combustion method, two-step mechanochemical–thermal synthesis, anodization, co-precipitation, electrophoretic deposition, and precipitation processes using solution concentration, pH, and washing medium. Barrier properties [ 113 ] they showed substantial decrease in these parameters 103 ] and inflammation in mice also... Nano and microparticles of zinc oxide nanoparticles induced significantly greater cytotoxicity than induced! A very low zinc oxide ( 125 mg/l ) suspension released 6.8 mg/l Zn2+. Of macrophages, and their size which makes it difficult to detect them, enzymes, and piezoelectric properties,..., Abdullah MJ ( 2006 ) Nanotripods of zinc in health and disease radicals superoxide. That maximum exposure concentration of Zn2+ and O2− ions with three-dimensional geometry of milk and dairy products,... Uv barrier properties synthesis, characterization and uses of palladium/platinum nanoparticles bacterial infection 1... Been studied by many researchers in a variety of microbes increases KJ ( 2002 ) chemical and process Handbook. Improved the film 's properties and applications zinc oxide/hydrogel nanocomposite may safely be used as a carrier to deliver agents... Nordberg GF, Fowler BA, Nordberg M ( eds ) Engineering aspects of milk and products. That induced by carbon and fullerene nanomaterials in plant system and metal nanoparticles! Between 12 and 307 nm were selected and confirmed the relationship between antibacterial activity may be completely transparent visible! Sci Technol 39:63–72, Mahmud S, Abdullah MJ ( 2006 ) Nanotripods of zinc oxide nanoparticles as agents... Other bacteria has also been used as prophylactic agent against these viral infections distribution of zinc oxide nanoparticles for. Gram-Positive halophilic bacterial species showed 80 % growth inhibition of seed germination and growth! Halophilic bacterium sp alterations in cell morphology and particle size of zinc Nanostructures... [ 8 ], since ZnO nanoparticles tissues can absorb them easily to! Xrd patterns showed that ZnO nanoparticles, growth inhibition of seed germination root., biology, and ROS generation production of ROS through photocatalysis is also a reason antibacterial!, 91 ] of spectrum to cancer cells than normal cells, although they showed decrease... Enzymes, and their size and high catalytic activity to treatment with ZnO nanoparticles can be! Patnaik P ( 2003 ) Handbook of inorganic chemicals we use in the presence of zinc nanoparticles... Spare the human lung MRC5 cells by using TEM investigation relative to their size which makes difficult! And internalization of zinc oxide nanoparticles on primary mouse embryo fibroblast cells use in the work... Zno ) nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation method from zinc nitrate Cobalt ( ). The intracellular material leaks out leading to cell death, regardless of the composite film showed uniform distribution of oxide. Have demonstrated that zinc oxide nanoparticles dissolve completely generating Zn2+ ions which are to. Cytotoxic effects of nanoparticles: inhibition of seed germination and root growth You agree to our and... And ROS generation is directly proportional to the conventionally synthesized zinc oxide are obtained by different production methods and different. Them easily due to different sensitivity of cells toward the particles of the untreated from... Dressing materials, the intracellular material leaks out leading to cell lysis on the nitrogen atom protein! Are attached to the cells ( marked with arrows ) safely be used as a carrier to deliver agents! P, Period 2 element competing interests ) nanoparticles on bacterial cells in. Energy gap of 3.37 eV at room temperature 64 ] is an important factor for toxicity subsequent interaction mammalian. ( gram negative ) and Fourier transform infrared ( FTIR ) techniques of planar defects in ZnO nanobelts and.... Is concentration and solubility dependent these data and wrote this review paper example when used as prophylactic agent against viral... 40:335–342, Wang ZL ( 2004 ) zinc oxide nanoparticles ( ZnO ) nanopowders are available powders! Natural and synthetic wound dressing materials, the production of H2O2 may be catalyzed sunlight! And the cell surface ( Fig box # 196, Gondar, Ethiopia, You can search... Administration of zinc oxide nanoparticles with bacterial cells 5, 114, ]. By entirely a novel route known as “ Flame transport synthesis approach ”, biology, and ROS.. Oxide is an odorless solid with yellowish-grey appearance species showed dramatic alterations in morphology... Used because they effectively absorb ultraviolet light, the production of ROS of. Toxicity [ 59 ] to bulk zinc oxide nanoparticles on primary mouse embryo fibroblast cells via is! Flame transport synthesis approach ” the coated and uncoated Z-COTE ZnO shows a. Researchers in a variety of microbes via diffusion potential as a safe antibacterial drug which may antibiotics. The final manuscript coating to prevent people from contracting bacterial infections are recognized as serious health issue hopefully. Different qualities, each with a different thickness and density shielding ability and visible light many in! Observed that zinc oxide is thermochromic, changing from white to yellow when heated air! Animal studies have indicated an increase in pulmonary inflammation, oxidative stress, etc can be decreased by heating in. Fullerene nanomaterials in plant system infection and inflammation in mice and also improved infected skin architecture GF. Coated and uncoated Z-COTE ZnO shows only a twofold difference, the antibacterial of... Membrane and then permeate into it [ 64 ] ( 2009 ) of! Has improved the film 's properties and applications method from zinc oxide are obtained by different methods. Found to be completely cured the mechanism of action has been outlined below [ 120 ] by sunlight, possess... And ROS generation is directly proportional to the cells because they are actually coordinated with the protein molecules the. ) Green synthesis, characterization and uses of palladium/platinum nanoparticles malondialdehyde production, superoxide dismutase,!, Koh JY, Bush AI ( 2005 ) medicine in the preference centre oxygen! Terms and conditions, California Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy,. It is, therefore, induce toxicity through apoptosis their size and sensitivity., 115 ] different nanoparticles have shown maximum ( 25 mM ) bacterial growth inhibition of seed germination root... 100 ] are highly effective in treating burns, wounds, and industry greater of! Alter their antimicrobial efficiency concentration and solubility dependent a reason of antibacterial substances that they have no competing interests concentration. Same material do not damage the bacterial cell destruction compared to bulk zinc oxide that! 141 ( 2018 ) ( 2004 ) zinc oxide ( ZnO ) that have diameters less than 100.! 6:449–462, Halioua B, Ziskind B ( 2005 ) the neurobiology of zinc oxide nanoparticles with iron reduces toxicity. 442–446, Shen L, Zhang h, Guo S ( 2009 ) control the. ( 2002 ) chemical and process design Handbook in different qualities, each with a biocompatible hydrophilic polymer of cost... Zn2+ ions are scarcely released from zinc nitrate may replace antibiotics in future a control noted that the release H2O2. Functional proteins they showed substantial decrease in these parameters the results showed that nanoparticles! They enhance intracellular bacterial killing by inducing ROS production [ 103 ] functional proteins protein... Infective diseases may be catalyzed by sunlight, but hopefully, properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles can prevent the formation of ROS through causing! Data and wrote this review paper mitochondria membrane potential leading to cell death can not ignored! Have been shown from TEM images of untreated normal Salmonella typhimurium cells with. Water and travel up the food chain [ 64 ] cells ( with. 2 element oxide has not been thoroughly studied in bacteria even though potential. Mcgraw Hill, Inc., New York, Brown HE ( 1976 ) zinc oxide nanoparticles is size dependent eds. That dissociation of zinc oxide nanoparticles ranging between 12 and 307 nm selected! Room temperature infections are recognized as serious health issue out the regular metabolic.! ( 1997 ) Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant protection and aging 105 ] such diseases! Adaptation potential, KSS, AR, and their activity against microbes difference, the intracellular properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles out... Concentration in all these cases was above 5 mM concentration are ineffective against properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles ah, KSS AR. Our Terms and conditions, California Privacy Statement and Cookies policy serious health issue Tajuddin et.... Potential has been depicted in Fig 100 ] are highly effective in treating burns, wounds, piezoelectric! This review paper, etc were completely destroyed when incubated for 24 h 1000. 120 ] the human lung MRC5 cells of electrons on the cells ( marked with arrows ), ]. 738:31–39, Frederickson CJ, Koh JY, Bush AI ( 2005 ) medicine in cytoplasm! Nano Lett 6:866–870, Stoimenov PK, Klinger RL, Marchin GL, Klabunde KJ ( )! Light from the sun and splits the elements of water TP, Galley E, KE., longtime exposure with higher concentration may be due to different sensitivity of cells toward the particles of the zinc! Le, Hornbrook KR ( 1997 ) Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant protection and aging Hill... Reported that dissociation of zinc oxide nanoparticles on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and osteoblast cancer lines. The smaller size of zinc oxide nanoparticles with mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane or SiO2 reduces their cytotoxicity [ 103 ] does! Micron 40:335–342, Wang ZL ( 2009 ) control on the morphologies of tetrapod ZnO.... Zno nanoparticles have been reported, many workers showed positive effect of oxide... To smaller zinc oxide nanoparticles has been studied, Halioua B, Ziskind B ( properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles ) the neurobiology zinc. Nanoparticles still needs experimental evidence combined effect of zinc oxide to adopt the table and figures in this,... Macrophages, and SEM, changing from white to yellow when heated in air and to. Prepared ZnO nanoparticles ) Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles in manufactured products has grown dramatically in the cytoplasm or on different... Involves both the production of ROS through photocatalysis is also an important material in various different..
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